Three Part Question
In [patients with acute traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation] is [intra-articular lidocaine as effective as intravenous analgesia and sedation] at [facilitating reduction and easing pain associated with reduction]?
A middle aged man attends the emergency department having sustained an acute primary anterior shoulder dislocation during a fall. It is impossible to obtain peripheral venous access and you are not able to get him to breathe entonox. You are aware that shoulder dislocations can be reduced with intra-articular lidocaine (IAL). You wonder if IAL is as effective as intravenous analgesia and sedation (IVAS).
Medline 1966-12/01 using the Ovid interface.
[exp shoulder dislocation OR shoulder dislocation.mp OR "dislocated shoulder".mp] AND [exp anesthesia, intravenous OR exp anesthetics, intravenous OR "intravenous anaesthesia".mp OR exp analgesia OR exp conscious sedation OR exp diazepam OR exp hypnotics and sedatives OR exp midazolam OR exp sedatives, nonbarbiturate OR sedation.mp OR exp narcotics OR narcotics.mp OR exp morphine OR morphine.mp OR exp meperidine OR meperidine.mp OR exp pethidine OR pethidine.mp OR exp lidocaine OR "lidocaine".mp OR "lignocaine".mp OR exp injections, intra-articular OR exp joint diseases OR intraarticular.mp OR exp anesthetics OR exp anesthetics, local OR anesthetics.mp] AND maximally sensitive RCT filter. LIMIT to human AND English.
146 papers were found, of which 3 were relevant.
|Author, date and country
||Study type (level of evidence)
|Suder PA et al,|
|52 patients with secondary traumatic shoulder dislocation patients
IAL (26) vs IVAS (26)||PRCT||Pain||Insignificant difference (p=0.08)||Small size|
|Subjective evaluation ||Insignificant difference (p=0.19) |
|Mean time ||16.1 + 3.5 vs 4.7 + 2.9 (p=0.001)|
|Result of reduction ||No significant difference (p=0.19) |
|Matthews DE and Roberts T,|
|30 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with acute anterior shoulder dislocation
IAL (15) vs IVAS (15)||PRCT||Time to reduction, difficulty of reduction, subjective pain ||No statistically significant difference ||Small size
Varied reduction techniques
Statistical methods not described|
|Time in emergency department||Significant reduction in the IAL group|
|Kosnick J et al,|
|49 patients presenting to the emergency department with acute anterior shoulder dislocation
IAL (29) vs IVAS (20)
||PRCT||Success rate||20/20 for IVAS vs 24/29 for IAL (p=0.07)||Small sample size
Varied physician experience
Varied reduction techniques
|Ease of reduction (SD)||3.32 (2.36) for IVAS vs 4.45 (2.46) for IAL (p=0.12)|
|Pain score (SD)||3.95 (2.39) for IVAS vs 4.90 (2.34) for IAL (p=0.18)|
All studies were small and therefore underpowered. Larger studies are therefore needed.
Clinical Bottom Line
Where intravenous analgesia and sedation needs to be avoided, intra-articular lidocaine should be the analgesic method of choice for reducing shoulder dislocations.
- Suder PA, Mikkelsen JB, Hougaard K, et al. Reduction of traumatic secondary shoulder dislocations with lidocaine. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1995;114(4):233-6.
- Matthews DE, Roberts T. Intraarticular lidocaine versus intravenous analgesic for reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocations. A prospective randomized study. Am J Sports Med 1995;23(1):54-8.
- Kosnik J, Shamsa F, Raphael E et al. Anesthetic methods for reduction of acute shoulder dislocations: a prospective randomized study comparing intraarticular lidocaine with intravenous analgesia and sedation. Am J Emerg Med 1999;17(6):566-70.